From 2003 through 2014, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope observed the same tiny region across 7 different wavelength bands.

They produced Hubble’s Ultra-Deep Field and eXtreme Deep Field images.

Here are 10 scientific revolutions hiding inside.

1.) The Milky Way’s most distant red dwarf star ever seen: UDF 2457, located 59,000 light-years away.

2.) The largest, brightest deep galaxy, UDF 423: a giant spiral from 7.7 billion years ago.

3.) Ancient galaxy HUDF-JD2 appears just 0.9 billion years after the Big Bang, having already grown to 600 billion solar masses.

4.) Ultra-faint, red galaxy UDFj-39546284 initially fooled us: it’s an interloping galaxy mimicking a more distant one.

5.) UDFy-38135539 is similarly controversial: its disputed distance measurements mean it could be another interloper.

6.) Star formation peaked some 11 billion years ago, having steadily fallen ever since.

7.) Dozens of cosmic tadpoles showed that interacting, merging galaxies are common in the young, evolving Universe.

8.) The XDF’s deepest view ever found 5500 galaxies in a region covering just 1/32,000,000th of the sky.

9.) 170 billion galaxies would be visible if Hubble could view the entire sky, which would require millions of years.

10.) It taught us 2 trillion total galaxies occupy the observable Universe, with Hubble’s limits unable to penetrate farther.


Mostly Mute Monday tells an astronomical story in images, visuals, and no more than 200 words. Talk less; smile more.