In 1960, renowned theoretical physicist Freeman Dyson made an extreme proposition. In a paper entitled “ Look For Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation” he recommended that sophisticated extra-terrestrial intelligences (ETIs) might be discovered by trying to find indications of synthetic structures so big, they included whole galaxy (aka. megastructures). Ever since, lots of researchers have actually developed their own concepts for possible megastructures.

Like Dyson’s proposed Sphere, these concepts were recommended as a method of providing researchers taken part in the Look for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) something to try to find. Contributing to this remarkable field, Dr. Albert Jackson of the Houston-based innovation business Triton Systems just recently a research study where he proposed that an innovative civilization might utilize a neutron star or great void to focus neutrino beams for the sake of sending out signals.

To sum up briefly, the presence of megastructures depends totally on where an extra-terrestrial civilization would suit the Kardashev Scale(i.e. if they are a planetary, outstanding, or stellar civilization). In this case, Jackson recommends that a Type II civilization would can confining a neutron star or great void through the production of a big constellation of neutrino-transmitting satellites.

Dr. Jackson starts his research study with a quote from Freeman Dyson’s 1966 essay, “The Look For Extraterrestrial Innovation”, where he summarized his goals:

” So the very first guideline of my video game is: consider the most significant possible synthetic activities with limitations set just by the laws of physics and try to find those.

In a previous research study, Dr. Jackson recommended how sophisticated ETIs might utilize little great voids as a gravitational lens to send out gravitational wave signals throughout the galaxy. This idea builds on current work by other scientists who have actually recommended that gravitational waves (GWs)– which have actually ended up being the focus of substantial research study because they were very first found in 2016— might be utilized to transfer details.

In another paper, he likewise ventured how a sufficiently-advanced civilization might utilize the exact same kind of lens to produce a laser beacon In both cases, the technological requirements would be incredible and would need facilities on an excellent scale. Taking this an action even more, Dr. Jackson checks out the possibility of neutrinos being utilized to transfer details because they, like GWs, take a trip well through the interstellar medium.

Compared to focused beams of photons (aka. lasers), neutrinos have a variety of benefits as far as beacons are worried. As Dr. Jackson informed Universe Today through e-mail:

” Neutrinos get here practically without attenuation from any source instructions, this would have [a] huge benefit in the Galactic aircraft. Photons in wavelengths like the infrared are likewise great with gas and dust (why the Webb is an IR scope) still there is some absorption. Neutrinos can take a trip throughout deep space practically without absorption.”

Artist’s representation of a constellation of accelerator-transmitters in orbit around a neutron star. Credit: A.A. Jackson/Triton Systems LLC

When it comes to the procedure through which such a beacon might be produced, Jackson when again describes Freeman Dyson’s directing guideline on how ETIs might set about producing any kind of megastructure. This guideline is merely, “if the physics permits it, it is perhaps highly practical.” When it comes to a Type II civilization, the engineering requirements would be beyond our understanding, however the concept stays sound.

Generally, the idea benefits from a phenomenon called gravitational lensing, where researchers depend on the existence of a huge stepping in challenge focus and amplify light originating from a more far-off item. In this case, the light would be neutrinos, and the result of focusing them would produce a more powerful beacon signal. As Jackson described:

” Location a source of neutrinos in orbit about a great void or neutron star. The great void or neutrons star are best due to the fact that they are extremely compact items. A great void or neutron star is a gravitational lens, this lens focuses the neutrinos (it might be photons or gravitons) into an extreme beam. This beam when seen at a range is so ‘tight’ one needs to position a constellation of neutrino ‘transmitters’ about the gravitational lens in order to get an approximate isotropic transmitter. In this case the variety of ‘transmitters’ has to do with [1018], or about a billion times the variety of stars in the Galaxy Galaxy.”

Similar to developing a Dyson Sphere, this sort of engineering endeavor would just be possible for a types that had efficiently end up being a Type II civilization. Simply put, a civilization efficient in utilizing and transporting the energy radiated by its own star, which totals up to about ~ 4 ×1033 erg/sec (or 4 ×1026 watts) of energy– which is numerous trillion times what mankind presently takes in on a yearly basis.

This image reveals a graph of among the highest-energy neutrino detections superimposed on a view of the IceCube Laboratory at the South Pole. Credit: IceCube Cooperation

Another fascinating possibility developing from this is its ramifications for SETI. Considered that a sufficiently-advanced extra-terrestrial types might be interacting through neutrinos, researchers might utilize existing detectors to determine the sources. In this regard, focused neutrino beams might be contributed to the list of possible “technosignatures”– i.e. indications of technological activity– being looked for by SETI scientists.

” There are a variety of ‘neutrino telescopes’ worldwide,” Jackson specified. “If an innovative civilization beacon exists it might produce an extremely anomalous variety of neutrino occasions, method above the natural sources of neutrinos such [as] the sun or supernova. this would be an addition to the prospects for indications of sophisticated technological activity.”

To sum up things with another quote from among Dyson’s popular essays:

” When we check out deep space for indications of synthetic activities, it is innovation and not intelligence that we need to look for. It would be a lot more satisfying to browse straight for intelligence, however innovation is the only thing we have any opportunity of seeing.”

As we find out more about deep space and end up being advanced as a types, it opens our mind to brand-new possibilities in the continuous look for life. If and when we do discover proof of ETIs, it is totally possible it will be due to the fact that we have actually discovered lastly discovered to check out the signatures of their presence properly. In the meantime, the search continues …

Additional Reading: arXiv