Like a blue sapphire on black velvet … The first image ever taken by humans of the whole Earth, probably photographed by William Anders in December1967 Image in public domain.W.Anders

“Diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires. All the crystalline forms that you cherish above all things” – From the Star Trek episode Cat’s Paw.

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Earth is a planet composed mostly of iron. The inner core is believed to be an iron-nickel alloy and the mantle, making up one-third of Earth’s volume, is composed of bridgmanite, a magnesium-iron-silicate, the most abundant mineral in the Earth. Earth’s crust contains iron, oxygen, magnesium and silicon, with traces of sulfur, nickel, calcium, and aluminum added to the mix. However, planets outside our solar system may display a very alien composition, depending on their origin.

The chemical composition of a planet depends on the interaction of two factors, the chemical composition of the dust and gas disk around the newborn star from which the planet forms and where in this protoplanetary disc the planet forms. Farther out in the disc, in the cooler zones, elements such as silicon, iron and magnesium will form grains and clumps. Gravity will pull together the pieces until enough mass is collected to form a planet. It is likely that the rocky planets in our solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, formed this way. Close to the star the temperature is rising and lighter elements, like silicon, magnesium, aluminum and calcium, start condensing into the planetary building compounds. A planet composed mostly from such elements would have a 10 to 20 percent lower density than Earth.

Researchers from the Universities of Zurich in Switzerland and Cambridge in the United Kingdom discovered three large planets that may confirm this theoretical model. HD 219134 b, located just 21 light-years away, in the constellation of Cassiopeia, with an orbit of just 3 days; 55 Cancri e, 41 light-years away, with an orbit of just 18 hours; and WASP-47 e, located 870 light-years away, also with an 18-hour orbit.

HD219134 b is a super-Earth with a mass almost five times that of Earth, yet its density is surprisingly low. The planet most likely does not have a massive core of iron but is rich in light elements like oxygen, calcium and aluminum. The chemical composition would allow the existence of large quantities of aluminum oxides on the planet. On Earth, crystalline aluminum oxide forms the mineral corundum. If the aluminum oxide contains traces of iron, titanium, cobalt or chromium, it will form the noble varieties of corundum, gemstones like the blue sapphire, the red ruby and the pink-orange padparadscha.

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(******* )(******** )Like a blue sapphire on black velour … The very first image ever taken by human beings of the entire Earth, most likely photographed by William Anders in December1967 Image in public domain. W.Anders

” Diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires. All the crystalline kinds that you value above all things” – From the Star Trek episode Feline’s Paw

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Earth is a world made up primarily of iron. The inner core is thought to be an iron-nickel alloy and the mantle, comprising one-third of Earth’s volume, is made up of bridgmanite, a magnesium-iron-silicate, the most plentiful mineral in the Earth. Earth’s crust consists of iron, oxygen, magnesium and silicon, with traces of sulfur, nickel, calcium, and aluminum contributed to the mix. Nevertheless, worlds outside our planetary system might show a really alien structure, depending upon their origin.

The chemical structure of a world depends upon the interaction of 2 aspects, the chemical structure of the dust and gas disk around the newborn star from which the world kinds and where in this protoplanetary disc the world kinds. Farther out in the disc, in the cooler zones, components such as silicon, iron and magnesium will form grains and clumps. Gravity will gather the pieces till sufficient mass is gathered to form a world. It is most likely that the rocky worlds in our planetary system, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, formed by doing this. Near the star the temperature level is increasing and lighter components, like silicon, magnesium, aluminum and calcium, begin condensing into the planetary structure substances. A world made up primarily from such components would have a 10 to 20 percent lower density than Earth.

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Scientists from the Universities of Zurich in Switzerland and Cambridge in the UK found 3 big worlds that might verify this theoretical design. HD 219134 b, situated simply 21 light-years away, in the constellation of Cassiopeia, with an orbit of simply 3 days; 55 Cancri e, 41 light-years away, with an orbit of simply 18 hours; and WASP-47 e, situated 870 light-years away, likewise with an 18- hour orbit.

HD219134 b is a super-Earth with a mass nearly 5 times that of Earth, yet its density is remarkably low. The world probably does not have an enormous core of iron however is abundant in light components like oxygen, calcium and aluminum. The chemical structure would enable the presence of big amounts of aluminum oxides on earth. In the world, crystalline aluminum oxide forms the mineral corundum. If the aluminum oxide consists of traces of iron, titanium, cobalt or chromium, it will form the worthy ranges of corundum, gems like the blue sapphire, the red ruby and the pink-orange padparadscha.

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Like a blue sapphire on black velour … The very first image ever taken by human beings of the entire Earth, most likely photographed by William Anders in December1967 Image in public domain. W.Anders

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“Diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires. All the crystalline kinds that you value above all things” – From the Star Trek episode Feline’s Paw

. POST CONTINUES AFTER AD

.

Earth is a world made up primarily of iron. The inner core is thought to be an iron-nickel alloy and the mantle, comprising one-third of Earth’s volume, is made up of bridgmanite , a magnesium-iron-silicate, the most plentiful mineral in the Earth. Earth’s crust consists of iron, oxygen, magnesium and silicon, with traces of sulfur, nickel, calcium, and aluminum contributed to the mix. Nevertheless, worlds outside our planetary system might show a really alien structure, depending upon their origin.

The chemical structure of a world depends upon the interaction of 2 aspects, the chemical structure of the dust and gas disk around the newborn star from which the world kinds and where in this protoplanetary disc the world kinds. Farther out in the disc, in the cooler zones, components such as silicon, iron and magnesium will form grains and clumps. Gravity will gather the pieces till sufficient mass is gathered to form a world. It is most likely that the rocky worlds in our planetary system, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, formed by doing this. Near the star the temperature level is increasing and lighter components, like silicon, magnesium, aluminum and calcium, begin condensing into the planetary structure substances. A world made up primarily from such components would have a 10 to 20 percent lower density than Earth.

Scientists from the Universities of Zurich in Switzerland and Cambridge in the UK found 3 big worlds that might verify this theoretical design. HD 219134 b, situated simply 21 light-years away, in the constellation of Cassiopeia, with an orbit of simply 3 days; 55 Cancri e, 41 light-years away, with an orbit of simply 18 hours; and WASP – 47 e, situated 870 light-years away, likewise with an 18 – hour orbit.

HD 219134 b is a super-Earth with a mass nearly 5 times that of Earth, yet its density is remarkably low. The world probably does not have an enormous core of iron however is abundant in light components like oxygen, calcium and aluminum. The chemical structure would enable the presence of big amounts of aluminum oxides on earth. In the world, crystalline aluminum oxide forms the mineral corundum. If the aluminum oxide consists of traces of iron, titanium, cobalt or chromium, it will form the worthy ranges of corundum, gems like the blue sapphire, the red ruby and the pink-orange padparadscha.

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