The Temple of Bel in Palmyra, which was blown up by ISIS militia in August2015 Credit: Wikipedia/Bernard Gagnon, CC BY-SA 3.0

Two millennia ago, Palmyra was a thriving city and cultural center on the trade route that linked the Roman Empire to Persia, India and China. After seizing the ancient city of Palmyra in 2015, ISIS militants destroyed the Temple of Bel, the Temple of Baalshamin, the Arch of Triumph and part of a second-century Roman theater with explosives and bulldozers. Statues in Palmyra’s museum were toppled and mutilated. Khaled al-Asaad, the 82-year-old head of antiquities in Palmyra, was executed. Only in March 2017, the ISIS militants were expelled from the city.

Lisa Mol, a geologist at the Department of Geography and Environmental Management in Bristol, studied before-and-after satellite images of the site, but as an expert in rock art and rock weathering, she was also interested in damage not visible from space. Statues and rock art were used as target practice by the militia and also damaged during the fire exchange to liberate the city. Mol is trying to quantify and catalog the impacts of bullets in rock at the heritage site of Palmyra and also other archaeological sites in the Middle East. One goal of this research is to develop step-by-step guidelines to identify ballistic damage, helping in the conservation and restoration of heritage sites. In southern Jordan her team, comprising a paleontologist, two geomorphologists, a heritage specialist and an archaeologist, studied the cultural heritage site of Wadi Rum. Wadi Rum was a battlefield between the guerillas and regular troops in the early twentieth century. Nowadays the rock art found here is sometimes used as target practice, even with heavy weapons like AK-47 machine guns.

Bullet damage on rock art at Wadi Rum.L.Clarke

The team didn’t only collect data in the field but observed the impact of bullets also in the laboratory. Shooting samples of rock, they studied the hardness, resistivity, and permeability of the undamaged and damaged rock surfaces. Thanks to 3D-scan technology the fracture pattern caused by the bullet impacts from different weapons can be studied in great detail. Damage done by gunfire varies depending on the used weapon, rock type and climate. Bullet damage is only the first step in the deterioration of a rock. The impact of the projectile causes fractures spreading into the rock. Moisture follows the fractures, accelerating significantly the chemical and physical weathering rate of the rock surface. Restoration attempts have to consider this process, as just covering the holes with concrete will not work.

Interested in reading more? Try:

MOL et al. (2017): The benefit of a tough skin; bullet holes, weathering, and the preservation of heritage.

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The Temple of Bel in Palmyra, which was exploded by ISIS militia in August2015 Credit: Wikipedia/Bernard Gagnon, CC BY-SA 3.0

2 centuries earlier, Palmyra was a flourishing city and cultural center on the trade path that connected the Roman Empire to Persia, India and China. After taking the ancient city of Palmyra in 2015, ISIS militants damaged the Temple of Bel, the Temple of Baalshamin, the Arch of Victory and part of a second-century Roman theater with dynamites and bulldozers. Statues in Palmyra’s museum were fell and mutilated Khaled al-Asaad, the 82- year-old head of antiquities in Palmyra, was carried out Just in March 2017, the ISIS militants were expelled from the city.

Lisa Mol, a geologist at the Department of Location and Environmental Management in Bristol, studied before-and-after satellite pictures of the website, however as an professional in rock art and rock wear and tear, she was likewise thinking about damage not noticeable from area. Statues and rock art were utilized as target practice by the militia and likewise harmed throughout the fire exchange to free the city. Mol is attempting to measure and brochure the effects of bullets in rock at the heritage website of Palmyra and likewise other historical sites in the Middle East. One objective of this research study is to establish detailed standards to determine ballistic damage, assisting in the preservation and remediation of heritage websites In southern Jordan her group, making up a paleontologist, 2 geomorphologists, a heritage professional and an archaeologist, studied the cultural heritage website of Wadi Rum. Wadi Rum was a battleground in between the guerillas and routine soldiers in the early twentieth century. Nowadays the rock art discovered here is often utilized as target practice, even with heavy weapons like AK-47 gatling gun.

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Bullet damage on rock art at Wadi Rum. L.Clarke

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(****************************** )(******************************* ) The group didn’t just gather information in the field however observed the effect of bullets likewise in the lab. Shooting samples of rock, they studied the solidity, resistivity, and permeability of the intact and broken rock surface areas. Thanks to 3D-scan innovation the fracture pattern triggered by the bullet effects from various weapons can be studied in terrific information. Damage done by shooting differs depending upon the utilized weapon, rock type and environment. Bullet damage is just the initial step in the wear and tear of a rock. T he effect of the projectile triggers fractures spreading out into the rock. Wetness follows the fractures, speeding up considerably the chemical and physical weathering rate of the rock surface area. Repair efforts need to consider this procedure, as simply covering the holes with concrete will not work.

Intrigued in finding out more? Attempt:

MOL et al.(2017): The advantage of a difficult skin; bullet holes, weathering, and the conservation of heritage

” readability =”46797205302759″ >

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The Temple of Bel in Palmyra, which was exploded by ISIS militia in August2015 Credit: Wikipedia/Bernard Gagnon , CC BY-SA 3.0

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2 centuries earlier, Palmyra was a flourishing city and cultural center on the trade path that connected the Roman Empire to Persia, India and China. After taking the ancient city of Palmyra in 2015, ISIS militants damaged the Temple of Bel , the Temple of Baalshamin , the Arch of Victory and part of a second-century Roman theater with dynamites and bulldozers. Statues in Palmyra’s museum were fell and mutilated Khaled al-Asaad, the 82 – year-old head of antiquities in Palmyra, was carried out Just in March 2017, the ISIS militants were expelled from the city.

Lisa Mol, a geologist at the Department of Location and Environmental Management in Bristol, studied before-and-after satellite pictures of the website, however as an professional in rock art and rock wear and tear, she was likewise thinking about damage not noticeable from area. Statues and rock art were utilized as target practice by the militia and likewise harmed throughout the fire exchange to free the city. Mol is attempting to measure and brochure the effects of bullets in rock at the heritage website of Palmyra and likewise other historical sites in the Middle East. One objective of this research study is to establish detailed standards to determine ballistic damage, assisting in the preservation and remediation of heritage websites In southern Jordan her group, making up a paleontologist, 2 geomorphologists, a heritage professional and an archaeologist, studied the cultural heritage website of Wadi Rum. Wadi Rum was a battleground in between the guerillas and routine soldiers in the early twentieth century. Nowadays the rock art discovered here is often utilized as target practice, even with heavy weapons like AK – 47 gatling gun.

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Bullet damage on rock art at Wadi Rum. L.Clarke

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The group didn’t just gather information in the field however observed the effect of bullets likewise in the lab. Shooting samples of rock, they studied the solidity, resistivity, and permeability of the intact and broken rock surface areas. Thanks to 3D-scan innovation the fracture pattern triggered by the bullet effects from various weapons can be studied in terrific information. Damage done by shooting differs depending upon the utilized weapon, rock type and environment. Bullet damage is just the initial step in the wear and tear of a rock. T he effect of the projectile triggers fractures spreading out into the rock. Wetness follows the fractures, speeding up considerably the chemical and physical weathering rate of the rock surface area. Repair efforts need to consider this procedure, as simply covering the holes with concrete will not work.

Intrigued in finding out more? Attempt:

MOL et al. (2017): The advantage of a difficult skin; bullet holes, weathering, and the conservation of heritage

.

.