Archaeologists discovered Altamira Cave thanks to a fallen tree.Google

For readers in Spain and parts of Latin America, Monday’s Google Doodle celebrates the discovery of 36,000-year-old art in the Altamira Caves of northern Spain.

The cave and its secrets had been locked away for 13,000 years behind fallen rock. Botanist and archaeologist Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola found the cave in 1879 only because a tree had recently fallen, knocking aside some of the rocks in the process. Sautuola discovered animal bones and stone tools near the mouth of the cave, but it was his daughter Maria, on a return visit, who discovered the paintings on the walls and ceilings of the cave, stretching back nearly 1,000 meters (3,280 feet). The walls of the cave are a riot of color. Images in rich shades of yellow, red, black, and gray depict bision, horses, deer, goats, and a boar, along with abstract shapes and human handprints, all painted in charcoal and an iron-rich pigment called ochre.

These images decorate the ceiling of a chamber in Altamira Cave.Yvon Fruneau, © UNESCO

Sautuola became one of the first to suggest that such cave paintings might be the work of people who lived in Spain thousands of years ago, and the idea immediately sparked a heated debate among European archaeologists. Some firmly dismissed the idea that these cave paintings could have been the work of prehistoric people, because they doubted that humans had the ability to think in abstract ways or use symbols so long ago. Today, of course, we know that humans and even some of our hominin relatives, such as Neanderthals and even Homo erectus, have been creating art and jewelry for at least 70,000 years.

People lived at Altamira from around 14,000 years ago to 16,500 years ago, then abandoned the cave until around 18,000 years ago. Both groups seem to have done most of their actual day-to-day living close to the mouth of the cave, because that’s where archaeologists have found layers of stone tools and other artifacts. But they ventured deeper into the cave to draw and paint, although we may never fully understand exactly why. A 2008 study found that the winding passages and chambers of Altamira hold a gallery of art spanning roughly 10,000 to 20,000 years. The oldest piece that’s been dated so far is a red club-shaped symbol painted on a chamber ceiling, which dated to around 36,000 years old. The outline of a horse, drawn in a red dotted line on the ceiling of the same chamber, dated to around 22,000 years old.

Archaeologists arrived at those dates by measuring the ratio of the radioactive element uranium to its radioactive decay product, thorium-230 (an isotope of the element thorium). Because we know how long it takes for half of any given chunk of uranium to decay to thorium (245,000 years), comparing the ratios of the two elements can estimate the age of a rock — such as a sheet of calcium carbonate, formed from minerals deposited by water flowing through the cave. Archaeologists dated the calcium carbonate layers above and below the rock art to figure out its possible age range.

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(******** )(********* )Archaeologists found Altamira Cavern thanks to a fallen tree.
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For readers in Spain and parts of Latin America, Monday’s Google Doodle commemorates the discovery of 36,000- year-old art in the Altamira Caves of northern Spain.

The cavern and its tricks had actually been locked away for 13,000 years behind fallen rock. Botanist and archaeologist Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola discovered the collapse 1879 just due to the fact that a tree had actually just recently fallen, knocking aside a few of the rocks while doing so. Sautuola found animal bones and stone tools near the mouth of the cavern, however it was his child Maria, on a return go to, who found the paintings on the walls and ceilings of the cavern, extending back almost 1,000 meters (3,280 feet). The walls of the cavern are a riot of color. Images in abundant tones of yellow, red, black, and gray illustrate bision, horses, deer, goats, and a boar, together with abstract shapes and human handprints, all painted in charcoal and an iron-rich pigment called ochre.

These images embellish the ceiling of a chamber in Altamira Cavern. Yvon Fruneau, © UNESCO

Sautuola turned into one of the very first to recommend that such cavern paintings may be the work of individuals who resided in Spain countless years back, and the concept right away triggered a heated dispute amongst European archaeologists. Some strongly dismissed the concept that these cavern paintings might have been the work of ancient individuals, due to the fact that they questioned that people had the capability to believe in abstract methods or utilize signs so long back. Today, obviously, we understand that people as well as a few of our hominin family members, such as Neanderthals as well as Homo erectus, have actually been producing art and fashion jewelry for a minimum of 70,000 years

(************ )(************** )Individuals lived at Altamira from around14,(*********************************************************** )years ago to16,500 years back, then deserted the cavern till around 18,000 years back. Both groups appear to have actually done the majority of their real everyday living near to the mouth of the cavern, since that’s where archaeologists have actually discovered layers of stone tools and other artifacts. However they ventured much deeper into the cavern to draw and paint, although we might never ever totally comprehend precisely why. A 2008 research study discovered that the winding passages and chambers of Altamira hold a gallery of art covering approximately 10,000 to 20,000 years. The earliest piece that’s been dated up until now is a red club-shaped sign painted on a chamber ceiling, which dated to around 36,000 years of ages. The summary of a horse, attracted a red dotted line on the ceiling of the very same chamber, dated to around 22,000 years of ages.

Archaeologists reached those dates by determining the ratio of the radioactive aspect uranium to its radioactive decay item, thorium-230(an isotope of the aspect thorium). Due to the fact that we understand for how long it considers half of any offered portion of uranium to decay to thorium (245,000 years), comparing the ratios of the 2 aspects can approximate the age of a rock– such as a sheet of calcium carbonate, formed from minerals transferred by water streaming through the cavern. Archaeologists dated the calcium carbonate layers above and listed below the rock art to determine its possible age variety.

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6686065309″ >

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Archaeologists found Altamira Cavern thanks to a fallen tree. Google

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For readers in Spain and parts of Latin America, Monday’s Google Doodle commemorates the discovery of 36, 000 – year-old art in the Altamira Caves of northern Spain.

The cavern and its tricks had actually been locked away for 13, 000 years behind fallen rock. Botanist and archaeologist Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola discovered the collapse 1879 just due to the fact that a tree had actually just recently fallen, knocking aside a few of the rocks while doing so. Sautuola found animal bones and stone tools near the mouth of the cavern, however it was his child Maria, on a return go to, who found the paintings on the walls and ceilings of the cavern, extending back almost 1, 000 meters (3, 280 feet). The walls of the cavern are a riot of color. Images in abundant tones of yellow, red, black, and gray illustrate bision, horses, deer, goats, and a boar, together with abstract shapes and human handprints, all painted in charcoal and an iron-rich pigment called ochre.

.

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These images embellish the ceiling of a chamber in Altamira Cavern. Yvon Fruneau, © UNESCO

.

.

Sautuola turned into one of the very first to recommend that such cavern paintings may be the work of individuals who resided in Spain countless years back, and the concept right away triggered a heated dispute amongst European archaeologists. Some strongly dismissed the concept that these cavern paintings might have been the work of ancient individuals, due to the fact that they questioned that people had the capability to believe in abstract methods or utilize signs so long back. Today, obviously, we understand that people as well as a few of our hominin family members, such as Neanderthals as well as Homo erectus , have actually been producing art and fashion jewelry for a minimum of 70, 000 years

.

Individuals lived at Altamira from around 14, 000 years ago to 16, 500 years back, then deserted the cavern till around 18, 000 years back. Both groups appear to have actually done the majority of their real everyday living near to the mouth of the cavern, since that’s where archaeologists have actually discovered layers of stone tools and other artifacts. However they ventured much deeper into the cavern to draw and paint, although we might never ever totally comprehend precisely why. A 2008 research study discovered that the winding passages and chambers of Altamira hold a gallery of art covering approximately 10, 000 to 20, 000 years. The earliest piece that’s been dated up until now is a red club-shaped sign painted on a chamber ceiling, which dated to around 36, 000 years of ages. The summary of a horse, attracted a red dotted line on the ceiling of the very same chamber, dated to around 22, 000 years of ages.

Archaeologists reached those dates by determining the ratio of the radioactive aspect uranium to its radioactive decay item, thorium – 230 (an isotope of the aspect thorium). Due to the fact that we understand for how long it considers half of any offered portion of uranium to decay to thorium (245, 000 years), comparing the ratios of the 2 aspects can approximate the age of a rock– such as a sheet of calcium carbonate, formed from minerals transferred by water streaming through the cavern. Archaeologists dated the calcium carbonate layers above and listed below the rock art to determine its possible age variety.

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