In its more youthful days, the Galaxy feasted on a smaller sized galaxy, and stars from the unlucky victim still wander the skies today to inform the tale, a brand-new research study discovers.
” This is a significant occasion in the history of the galaxy,” states astronomer Amina Helmi of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. “We’re actually beginning to penetrate the forefathers of the Galaxy.”
Helmi and her associates evaluated the speeds and positions of 10s of countless stars in the Galaxy within about 33,000 light-years of the sun, utilizing information from the European Area Company’s Gaia area telescope( SN Online: 5/9/18). A group of about 30,000 stars appear to be moving backwards, the group reports October 31 in Nature Rather of turning around the stellar center with the sun and the rest of the stars in the Galaxy’s intense disk, these stars travel in the opposite instructions.
” That was the very first tip,” Helmi states. “When stars move the opposite method, that currently informs you that they generally didn’t form in the very same location as most of the stars in our galaxy.”
The 2nd tip originated from looking those stars up in a brochure from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Advancement Experiment, or APOGEE, which utilizes the spectrum of light that stars emit to presume their chemistry and ages. The backward-moving stars had less heavy aspects than stars like the sun. That recommends that they formed previously in deep space’s history, prior to there was time for enormous stars and supernovas to spread out heavy aspects around the galaxy ( SN: 10/ 1/16, p. 25).
That chemistry clinched it, Helmi states. “It was so tidy. You right away understood these stars actually formed somewhere else.”
Comparing the observations with computer system simulations, Helmi’s group concluded that 10 billion years earlier, the Galaxy hit a smaller sized galaxy– maybe about 20 to 25 percent the size of the Galaxy at the time– including the equivalent of 600 million stars the mass of the sun.
That crash might discuss why the Galaxy is divided into various elements: a thin disk of young stars arranged into spiral arms, a thick disk of much older stars surrounding the thin disk, and a round halo of stars whose trajectories take them far from the disks. A number of the contemporary halo stars originated from the gobbled-up galaxy.
The group called the doomed galaxy Gaia-Enceladus. In Greek folklore, the huge Enceladus was the kid of Gaia (the Earth) and Uranus (the sky). Buried under Mount Etna in Italy, the legend goes, Enceladus is accountable for the area’s earthquakes. “The example is that Enceladus the galaxy is buried in the Galaxy, it was buried in the Gaia information, and it was the reason for a great deal of shaking and expanding of the disk of the Galaxy at that time,” Helmi states.
Indications of reverse-moving and chemically unique stars had actually been seen in earlier stellar studies, states astronomer Julio Navarro of the University of Victoria in Canada, who was not associated with the brand-new work. He determined about 120 of the foreign stars in a paper in2011 And other groups have actually utilized Gaia information and APOGEE information individually to recognize the very same group of odd stars, which they called the “Gaia sausage.”
Seeing both sets of information come together with countless stars “is rather soothing,” Navarro states. “The information still require to be settled,” he states. “The main point that the galaxy swallowed a quite heavy satellite a long time earlier, I believe that’s most likely beyond doubt.”
The stars that as soon as came from Gaia-Enceladus resemble a fossilized record of what galaxies resembled 10 billion years earlier. Studying them can assist expose information of ancient galaxies, and assist comprehend how galaxies form in basic, states astrophysicist Paula Jofré of Universidad Diego Portales in Santiago, Chile. Jofré has actually formerly utilized stars’ chemical contents to recognize ancestral tree amongst stars near the sun( SN: 10/13/18, p. 24).
” Now that this galaxy has actually been determined, I believe it is intriguing to study as numerous chemical aspects as possible and see if we can rebuild its history utilizing evolutionary trees as we provided for the solar area,” she states.
SWALLOWED ENTIRE In this animated computer system simulation, a galaxy like the Galaxy (stars in blue) and a smaller sized galaxy (stars in red) clash and combine into a single bigger galaxy. Something comparable occurred about 10 billion years earlier in the Galaxy. Researchers have actually now teased apart which stars originated from which galaxy utilizing the stars’ movements and chemistries.