The caldera of Tambora as seen from space. Photo by Wikipedia/NASA, Public Domain.

NASA

In his novel Les Miserables, French author Victor Hugo said of the Battle of Waterloo that “an unseasonably clouded sky sufficed to bring about the collapse of a World.” Indeed, bad weather caused by a volcanic eruption half a world away may have played a role.

In February 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte, former emperor of France, managed to flee his exile on the small island of Elba. Quickly regaining power, Napoleon faced the combined armies of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia, getting ready to attack France from multiple directions. The decisive battle would take place in a field near the village of Waterloo in Belgium. On June 15, 1815, Napoleon crossed the Belgian border with nearly 130,000 men to engage the Allied armies, more than 500,000 soldiers, near Brussels. He first crushed a small Prussian force, concentrating his attacks on the British troops. The British occupied two fortified farmhouses on a ridge. They then awaited the French attack by daybreak. However, none came.

The previous heavy night’s rain had made the ground too muddy to put cannons into position. Napoleon had no choice but to wait until the ground dried, costing him valuable time. The British forces were expecting receiving reinforcements and when the battle finally began it was already midday. As the British successfully defended their position, the Prussian reinforcements surprised the French army. Flanked by the Prussians, facing the British cavalry and infantry, suffering heavy causalities, the French army finally retreated. The rainy and muddy conditions of the battlefield at Waterloo helped the Allied army defeat the French.

Only two months before Napoleon’s final defeat, Mount Tambora, a volcano on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa, blew its top off in spectacular fashion. On the 10th and 11th, it sent molten rock more than 40 kilometers into the sky in the most powerful eruption of the past 1,000 years. Billions of tonnes of dust, gas, rock and ash, mixed in with millions of tonnes of sulfur oxide, rose up into Earth’s stratosphere. The sulfur dioxide spread around the globe, combined with water vapor the sulfate formed tiny droplets reflecting away some of the light coming from the sun. Global temperatures dropped in response, disrupting weather patterns in America and Europe. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, famous as the author of Frankenstein, describes the weather at the time as a “wet, ungenial summer, continuous rainfall kept us inside the house.”

Research published in 2018 argues that not only the emitted gases but also volcanic ash of the Tambora influenced the weather. The electrified volcanic ash from the eruption rose much higher than previously thought, into the ionosphere – the upper level of the atmosphere that is responsible for cloud formation. Here the volcanic particles attract water vapor, forming droplets and triggering cloud formation at an elevated rate. The heavy cloud layer brought heavy rain across Europe, making it impossible for the French artillery to attack the British in time and so contributing to Napoleon Bonaparte’s defeat at Waterloo.

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The caldera of Tambora as seen from area. Image by Wikipedia/NASA, Public Domain.

NASA

In his book Les Miserables, French author Victor Hugo stated of the Fight of Waterloo that “an unseasonably sky was adequate to produce the collapse of a World.” Certainly, bad weather condition brought on by a volcanic eruption half a world away might have contributed.

In February 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte, previous emperor of France, handled to leave his exile on the little island of Elba. Rapidly restoring power, Napoleon dealt with the combined armies of Terrific Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia, preparing to assault France from several instructions. The definitive fight would happen in a field near the town of Waterloo in Belgium. On June 15, 1815, Napoleon crossed the Belgian border with almost 130,000 males to engage the Allied armies, more than 500,000 soldiers, near Brussels. He initially squashed a little Prussian force, focusing his attacks on the British soldiers. The British occupied 2 prepared farmhouses on a ridge. They then waited for the French attack by daybreak. Nevertheless, none came.

The previous heavy night’s rain had actually made the ground too muddy to put cannons into position. Napoleon had no option however to wait till the ground dried, costing him important time. The British forces were anticipating getting supports and when the fight lastly started it was currently midday. As the British effectively safeguarded their position, the Prussian supports shocked the French army. Flanked by the Prussians, dealing with the British cavalry and infantry, suffering heavy causalities, the French army lastly pulled back. The rainy and muddy conditions of the battleground at Waterloo assisted the Allied army beat the French.

Just 2 months prior to Napoleon’s last defeat, Mount Tambora, a volcano on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa, blew its complement in magnificent style On the 10 th and 11 th, it sent out molten rock more than 40 kilometers into the sky in the most effective eruption of the past 1,000 years. Billions of tonnes of dust, gas, rock and ash, combined in with countless tonnes of sulfur oxide, rose into Earth’s stratosphere. The sulfur dioxide spread out around the world, integrated with water vapor the sulfate formed small beads showing away a few of the light originating from the sun. International temperature levels dropped in reaction, interrupting weather condition patterns in America and Europe Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, well-known as the author of Frankenstein, explains the weather condition at the time as a “damp, ungenial summertime, constant rains kept us inside your home.”

Research study released in 2018 argues that not just the released gases however likewise ashes of the Tambora affected the weather condition. The energized ashes from the eruption increased much greater than formerly believed, into the ionosphere – the upper level of the environment that is accountable for cloud development. Here the volcanic particles bring in water vapor, forming beads and activating cloud development at a raised rate. The heavy cloud layer brought heavy rain throughout Europe, making it difficult for the French weapons to assault the British in time therefore adding to Napoleon Bonaparte’s defeat at Waterloo.

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The caldera of Tambora as seen from area. Image by Wikipedia/NASA, Public Domain.

NASA

.

.

In his book Les Miserables , French author Victor Hugo stated of the Fight of Waterloo that “an unseasonably sky was adequate to produce the collapse of a World.” Certainly, bad weather condition brought on by a volcanic eruption half a world away might have contributed.

In February 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte, previous emperor of France, handled to leave his exile on the little island of Elba. Rapidly restoring power, Napoleon dealt with the combined armies of Terrific Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia, preparing to assault France from several instructions. The definitive fight would happen in a field near the town of Waterloo in Belgium. On June 15, 1815, Napoleon crossed the Belgian border with almost 130, 000 males to engage the Allied armies, more than 500, 000 soldiers, near Brussels. He initially squashed a little Prussian force, focusing his attacks on the British soldiers. The British occupied 2 prepared farmhouses on a ridge. They then waited for the French attack by daybreak. Nevertheless, none came.

The previous heavy night’s rain had actually made the ground too muddy to put cannons into position. Napoleon had no option however to wait till the ground dried, costing him important time. The British forces were anticipating getting supports and when the fight lastly started it was currently midday. As the British effectively safeguarded their position, the Prussian supports shocked the French army. Flanked by the Prussians, dealing with the British cavalry and infantry, suffering heavy causalities, the French army lastly pulled back. The rainy and muddy conditions of the battleground at Waterloo assisted the Allied army beat the French.

Just 2 months prior to Napoleon’s last defeat, Mount Tambora, a volcano on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa, blew its complement in magnificent style On the 10 th and 11 th, it sent out molten rock more than 40 kilometers into the sky in the most effective eruption of the past 1, 000 years. Billions of tonnes of dust, gas, rock and ash, combined in with countless tonnes of sulfur oxide, rose into Earth’s stratosphere. The sulfur dioxide spread out around the world, integrated with water vapor the sulfate formed small beads showing away a few of the light originating from the sun. International temperature levels dropped in reaction, interrupting weather condition patterns in America and Europe Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, well-known as the author of Frankenstein , explains the weather condition at the time as a “damp, ungenial summertime, constant rains kept us inside your home.”

Research study released in 2018 argues that not just the released gases however likewise ashes of the Tambora affected the weather condition. The energized ashes from the eruption increased much greater than formerly believed, into the ionosphere – the upper level of the environment that is accountable for cloud development. Here the volcanic particles bring in water vapor, forming beads and activating cloud development at a raised rate. The heavy cloud layer brought heavy rain throughout Europe, making it difficult for the French weapons to assault the British in time therefore adding to Napoleon Bonaparte’s defeat at Waterloo.