Fishing for the African river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, in Senegal.(************* )( Credit: bioGraphic)

bioGraphic

The African river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, is a big commercially crucial freshwater prawn that survives on the west coast of Africa. This threatened types is predatory with a specific fondness for the snails that are intermediate hosts for the parasitic flatworms, Schistosoma types. These parasitic worms can live for as long as 30 years inside capillary of contaminated individuals. Infection with these tiny parasites triggers schistosomiasis, a chronically progressive illness that normally eliminates its human hosts, either by triggering bladder cancer or liver failure or by increasing the threat of HELP.

By the end of 2015, more than 250 million individuals were understood to be contaminated with Schistosoma around the world and more than 800 million are at threat ( ref). Presently, the international Schistosoma infection rate competitors that of malaria, another, more familiar, parasite.

These prevalent and alarming human health effects motivated the advancement of a range of engineering, chemical and pharmaceutical interventions over the last 50 years to disrupt this parasite’s life process at each phase and to decrease the possibility that individuals enter contact with them (Figure 1; ref).

Fig 1. Control methods utilized versus schistosomiasis throughout the previous century.
( Credit: Susanne Sokolow & Chelsea Wood et al./ doi:10.1371/ journal.pntd.0004794)

Susanne Sokolow & Chelsea Wood et al., through an Imaginative Commons license

In(********************************************************************************* ), a recently established drug, praziquantel, was discovered to be inexpensive and very efficient at dealing with schistosomiasis, so health specialists were enthusiastic that they may lastly eliminate this consistent parasite. However praziquantel’s results are not lasting, so when individuals residing in hardship entered into the river the next day, they when again were reinfected. Years after the advancement of praziquantel, schistosomiasis is still here.

Praziquantel is an anti-worm medication that avoids freshly hatched worm larvae from growing or increasing in the body.
( Credit: bioGraphic)

bioGraphic

” There’s a consistent cycle of treatment and re-exposure and reinfection that we’re not fixing with drugs alone,” stated illness ecologist and vet Susanne Sokolow, an Elder Research Study Partner at Stanford University “So we are attempting to believe more artistically, believe more systemically about the ecology itself and how that can notify methods to really make a damage in the international problem of schistosomiasis.”

Snails, dams, and prawns

Beginning in the 1950 s, numerous big building jobs were released worldwide. These consisted of dams and watering programs that caused a huge increase in water-borne infections, especially schistosomiasis, which is endemic to tropical and subtropical areas in Africa, Asia and South America. Although preventative measures had actually been understood that might have reduced infections, they were not executed since the designers of these jobs were uninformed of them at the time.

Dams on the Senegal river supported the growth of farming upstream– and produced an epidemic of schistosomiasis. (************* )( Credit: bioGraphic)

bioGraphic

Dams were typically built in series along the length of specific rivers, seriously jeopardizing the stability of the river’s ecology and biodiversity. These series of dams triggered the populations of the Macrobrachium prawns to crash since the women are migratory– adult women occasionally stroll downstream to generate in brackish water, most likely several times throughout their lives, and stroll back upstream to freshwater where they feed, and where the young prawns develop. The resulting collapse of African river prawn populations in dammed rivers where they were traditionally present was accompanied by an enormous epidemic of schistosomiasis in the neighborhoods living upstream along these rivers.

Research study has actually suggested that African river prawns can be utilized as an environmentally friendly biological control to decrease the rates of schistosomiasis among individuals living near rivers since the prawns particularly prey upon Schistosoma‘s snail intermediary. The snail offers the prawns with calcium, which is important for the prawns to develop their own exoskeleton.

To show the relationship in between the prawns and the snails and schistosomiasis, ecologist Chelsea Wood, an assistant teacher in the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington, Dr. Sokolow, and their partners developed a number of prawn hatcheries near towns together with the Senegal River where the rates of schistosomiasis was greatest. These captive-bred African river prawns were re-stocked upstream of the Diama Dam, which lies on the lower reaches of the Senegal River. The outcomes were remarkable. The abundance of contaminated snails come by 80% in the towns where the native prawns were re-stocked, and the seriousness of Schistosoma infection amongst villagers decreased by 50% ( ref).

The
Senegal River is house to the African river prawns, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, which are starved predators of the snails that are intermediate hosts for(*********** )Schistosoma parasites.(************* )( Credit: bioGraphic)

bioGraphic

Teacher Wood, Dr. Sokolow and their coworkers likewise discovered that restocking captive-bred African river prawn larvae to their native house in the Senegal river, integrated with Praziquantel treatment, might possibly remove the Schistosoma parasite in your area within 5 years ( ref).

Schistosomiasis can not be captured from consuming the prawns, so it is a method that has financial along with human health advantages. Even more, these predatory prawns are at their most starved when they are young (and proliferating), so collecting the dinner-plate sized grownups would not affect the snail-reduction program.

” In this specific case, it ends up that harvest and illness control are a win-win,” Dr. Sokolow stated. “You can get both at the very same time.”

This preservation technique is a win for the regional environment, too, since it assists bring back a food web that supports lots of other types in addition to human beings.

Video report thanks to bioGraphic, a multimedia publication powered by the California Academy of Sciences

Sources:

Susanne H. Sokolow, Chelsea L. Wood, Isabel J. Jones, Scott J. Swartz, Melina Lopez, Michael H. Hsieh, Kevin D. Lafferty, Armand M. Kuris, Chloe Rickards, and Giulio A. De Leo (2016). International Evaluation of Schistosomiasis Control Over the Past Century Reveals Targeting the Snail Intermediate Host Functions Best, PLoS Ignored Tropical Illness, 10( 7 ): e0004794|doi: 101371/ journal.pntd.0004794

Susanne H. Sokolow, Elizabeth Huttinger, Nicolas Jouanard, Michael H. Hsieh, Kevin D. Lafferty, Armand M. Kuris, Gilles Riveau, Simon Senghor, Cheikh Thiam, Alassane N’Diaye, Djibril Sarr Faye, and Giulio A. De Leo (2015). Lowered transmission of human schistosomiasis after remediation of a native river prawn that victimizes the snail intermediate host, Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(31): 9650–9655|doi: 101073/ pnas.1502651112

Saving These Endangered Prawns Is A Delicious Method To Safeguard Human Health|@GrrlScientist

‘ readability =”149
63179803948″ >

Restocking rivers in tropical and subtropical Africa with a big threatened freshwater prawn not just offers residents with a protein-rich food source, however it likewise breaks the fatal life process of schistosomiasis

.

.

Fishing for the African river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii , in Senegal.
(Credit: bioGraphic .)

bioGraphic

.

.

The African river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii , is a big commercially crucial freshwater prawn that survives on the west coast of Africa. This threatened types is predatory with a specific fondness for the snails that are intermediate hosts for the parasitic flatworms, Schistosoma types. These parasitic worms can live for as long as 30 years inside capillary of contaminated individuals. Infection with these tiny parasites triggers schistosomiasis, a chronically progressive illness that normally eliminates its human hosts, either by triggering bladder cancer or liver failure or by increasing the threat of HELP.

By the end of 2015, more than 250 million individuals were understood to be contaminated with Schistosoma around the world and more than 800 million are at threat ( ref ). Presently, the international Schistosoma infection rate competitors that of malaria, another, more familiar, parasite.

These prevalent and alarming human health effects motivated the advancement of a range of engineering, chemical and pharmaceutical interventions over the last 50 years to disrupt this parasite’s life process at each phase and to decrease the possibility that individuals enter contact with them (Figure 1; ref ).

.

.

Fig 1. Control methods utilized versus schistosomiasis throughout the previous century.
(Credit: Susanne Sokolow & Chelsea Wood et al. / doi: 10 1371/ journal.pntd. 0004794 )

Susanne Sokolow & Chelsea Wood et al. , through an Imaginative Commons license

.

.

In 1982, a recently established drug, praziquantel, was discovered to be inexpensive and very efficient at dealing with schistosomiasis, so health specialists were enthusiastic that they may lastly eliminate this consistent parasite. However praziquantel’s results are not lasting, so when individuals residing in hardship entered into the river the next day, they when again were reinfected. Years after the advancement of praziquantel, schistosomiasis is still here.

.

.

Praziquantel is an anti-worm medication that avoids freshly hatched worm larvae from growing or increasing in the body.
(Credit: bioGraphic .)

bioGraphic

.

.

“There’s a consistent cycle of treatment and re-exposure and reinfection that we’re not fixing with drugs alone,” stated illness ecologist and vet Susanne Sokolow, an Elder Research Study Partner at Stanford University “So we are attempting to believe more artistically, believe more systemically about the ecology itself and how that can notify methods to really make a damage in the international problem of schistosomiasis.”

Snails, dams, and prawns

Beginning in the 1950 s, numerous big building jobs were released worldwide. These consisted of dams and watering programs that caused a huge increase in water-borne infections, especially schistosomiasis, which is endemic to tropical and subtropical areas in Africa, Asia and South America. Although preventative measures had actually been understood that might have reduced infections, they were not executed since the designers of these jobs were uninformed of them at the time.

.

.

Dams on the Senegal river supported the growth of farming upstream– and produced an epidemic of schistosomiasis.
(Credit: bioGraphic .)

bioGraphic

.

.

Dams were typically built in series along the length of specific rivers, seriously jeopardizing the stability of the river’s ecology and biodiversity. These series of dams triggered the populations of the Macrobrachium prawns to crash since the women are migratory– adult women occasionally stroll downstream to generate in brackish water, most likely several times throughout their lives, and stroll back upstream to freshwater where they feed, and where the young prawns develop. The resulting collapse of African river prawn populations in dammed rivers where they were traditionally present was accompanied by an enormous epidemic of schistosomiasis in the neighborhoods living upstream along these rivers.

Research study has actually suggested that African river prawns can be utilized as an environmentally friendly biological control to decrease the rates of schistosomiasis among individuals living near rivers since the prawns particularly prey upon Schistosoma ‘s snail intermediary. The snail offers the prawns with calcium, which is important for the prawns to develop their own exoskeleton.

To show the relationship in between the prawns and the snails and schistosomiasis, ecologist Chelsea Wood, an assistant teacher in the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington , Dr. Sokolow, and their partners developed a number of prawn hatcheries near towns together with the Senegal River where the rates of schistosomiasis was greatest. These captive-bred African river prawns were re-stocked upstream of the Diama Dam, which lies on the lower reaches of the Senegal River. The outcomes were remarkable. The abundance of contaminated snails come by 80 % in the towns where the native prawns were re-stocked, and the seriousness of Schistosoma infection amongst villagers decreased by 50 % ( ref ).

.

.

The Senegal River is house to the African river prawns, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii , which are starved predators of the snails that are intermediate hosts for Schistosoma parasites.
(Credit: bioGraphic .)

bioGraphic

.

.

Teacher Wood, Dr. Sokolow and their coworkers likewise discovered that restocking captive-bred African river prawn larvae to their native house in the Senegal river, integrated with Praziquantel treatment, might possibly remove the Schistosoma parasite in your area within 5 years ( ref ).

Schistosomiasis can not be captured from consuming the prawns, so it is a method that has financial along with human health advantages. Even more, these predatory prawns are at their most starved when they are young (and proliferating), so collecting the dinner-plate sized grownups would not affect the snail-reduction program.

“In this specific case, it ends up that harvest and illness control are a win-win,” Dr. Sokolow stated. “You can get both at the very same time.”

This preservation technique is a win for the regional environment, too, since it assists bring back a food web that supports lots of other types in addition to human beings.

Video report thanks to bioGraphic , a multimedia publication powered by the California Academy of Sciences

.

Sources:

Susanne H. Sokolow, Chelsea L. Wood, Isabel J. Jones, Scott J. Swartz, Melina Lopez, Michael H. Hsieh, Kevin D. Lafferty, Armand M. Kuris, Chloe Rickards, and Giulio A. De Leo (2016). International Evaluation of Schistosomiasis Control Over the Past Century Reveals Targeting the Snail Intermediate Host Functions Best , PLoS Ignored Tropical Illness , 10 (7): e 0004794|doi: 10 1371/ journal.pntd. 0004794

Susanne H. Sokolow, Elizabeth Huttinger, Nicolas Jouanard, Michael H. Hsieh, Kevin D. Lafferty, Armand M. Kuris, Gilles Riveau, Simon Senghor, Cheikh Thiam, Alassane N’Diaye, Djibril Sarr Faye, and Giulio A. De Leo (2015). Lowered transmission of human schistosomiasis after remediation of a native river prawn that victimizes the snail intermediate host , Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 112 (31): 9650– 9655|doi: 10 1073/ pnas. 1502651112

Saving These Endangered Prawns Is A Delicious Method To Safeguard Human Health|@GrrlScientist

.