Photo credit: Getty Royalty Free

Some captive elephants create paintings or even smash and consume giant pumpkins in Halloween kickoff events, but what about their mathematical abilities? Three Asian elephants named Artit (a 15-year-old male), Surya (an 18-year-old female), and Authai (a 14-year-old female) are the stars of a recent elephant math study published in the Journal of Ethology. The trio of pachyderms live in Japan’s Ueno Zoo in facilities approved by the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums. 

Authai was the breakout performer of the group in this study, which “provides the first experimental evidence that nonhuman animals have cognitive characteristics partially identical to human counting,” the study’s lead author Naoko Irie noted in a news release. (Artit was removed from the study when his accuracy for the final training stage of the experiment was 49.73%, which is “below chance level,” while Surya was dismissed from the study because she wasn’t cooperating with the experiment after two sessions of the final training stage.)

Here’s how the researchers probed Authai’s math abilities and what they found.

The training stage

First, the team trained Authai how to use touch panel apparatus, according to the paper. The apparatus consisted of a liquid crystal display with touch panel, which was connected to a laptop. All of those components were mounted stabilized by a dolly. (All three elephants were involved in this training stage.)

The training sessions were held on an outdoor playground and were timed to occur right before the elephants’ third meal of the day. These sessions were held outside of the view of other elephants and the training order was random for each day.

First, Authai was rewarded for touching the tip of her trunk to the screen. In the next step, she was rewarded if she touched a red start button within 30 seconds of it appearing on the screen.

The stakes were higher for the final training stage. With the zookeeper standing three meters away from Authai and facing in the opposite direction, the stage was set. Here, the elephant had to make some choices without taking cues from her keeper…

When the start button appeared on the screen, this was the keeper’s cue. The touchscreen device was pushed towards Authai until it was two meters away from her. The trial began when she used her trunk to push the start button. Two images of fruits (bananas, watermelons and apples) appeared on the screen and the elephant was to choose one of them. If she chose the one with the larger number of items (either three or four things, depending on the trial), this triggered a neutral sound and image, followed by a fruit reward for Authai. If she chose the figure with the smaller number of items, the result was a three second beeping sound, five seconds of a blank screen and no treat for the elephant.

In each of the 132 training trials, the researchers varied the sizes of the fruit images, which screen side contained the image with the larger quantity of fruit and “the percentages of the total areas (of the screen) covered by the items,” they note in the study. (One training session consisted of six training trials and four of these sessions were held each day. The touchscreen device was removed between sessions.)

The team’s analysis revealed that Authai’s accuracy was above the chance level for the two types of trials in the training stage (one with three objects versus zero and a second with four objects versus one, in which she was 72.2% accurate and 64.1% accurate, respectively). So, she was moved forward into the test trials.

An elephant math test

The testing trials had the same setup as the final training stage, except that each figure presented to Authai could contain images of between zero and 10 fruit pieces. These image combinations presented in a random order, although “each session included the comparison 1 vs 4 (case) at least once at the beginning to raise Authai’s motivation level,” the researchers wrote.

In 181 cases (out of 271), Authai chose the correct response. That’s a 66.8% accuracy rate, which is more often than chance. What’s more, the Asian elephant’s performance “was unaffected by distance, magnitude, or the ratios of the presented numerosities,” Irie stated in the news release. While Authai needed more time to compare the two figures when they were smaller distances apart, this is “consistent with observations of human counting,” Irie added.

Aside from the fact that the conclusions of this study are based on testing trials conducted on just one animal (so they may not generalize to other Asian elephants), there’s also the matter of the two species of African elephants. Since the species diverged more than 76 million years ago, there’s a high likelihood that their cognitive abilities differ from those of Asian elephants, the news release notes.

Still, it’s exciting to picture elephant mathematicians, whether wild or captive, possessing math sense that’s closer to that of humankind than other animals.

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Some captive elephants produce paintings or even smash and take in huge pumpkins(************** )in Halloween kickoff occasions, however what about their mathematical capabilities? 3 Asian elephants called Artit (a 15- year-old male), Surya (an 18- year-old woman), and Authai (a 14- year-old woman) are the stars of a current elephant mathematics research study released in the Journal of Ethology. The trio of pachyderms reside in Japan’s Ueno Zoo in centers authorized by the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums.

Authai was the breakout entertainer of the group in this research study, which “ offers the very first speculative proof that nonhuman animals have cognitive qualities partly similar to human counting,” the research study’s lead author Naoko Irie kept in mind in a press release (Artit was eliminated from the research study when his precision for the last training phase of the experiment was 49.73%, which is “listed below possibility level,” while Surya was dismissed from the research study since she wasn’t working together with the experiment after 2 sessions of the last training phase.)

Here’s how the scientists penetrated Authai’s mathematics capabilities and what they discovered.

The training phase

(********** )(************ )First, the group trained Authai how to utilize touch panel device, according to the paper. The device included a liquid crystal screen with touch panel, which was linked to a laptop computer. All of those elements were installed supported by a dolly. (All 3 elephants were associated with this training phase.)

The training sessions were hung on an outside play ground and were timed to take place right prior to the elephants’ 3rd meal of the day. These sessions were held beyond the view of other elephants and the training order was random for each day.

(************ )First,(**************** )Authai was rewarded for touching the pointer of her trunk to the screen. In the next action, she was rewarded if she touched a red start button within 30 seconds of it appearing on the screen.

The stakes were greater for the last training phase. With the zookeeper standing 3 meters far from Authai and dealing with in the opposite instructions, the phase was set. Here, the elephant needed to make some options without taking hints from her keeper …

When the start button appeared on the screen, this was the keeper’s hint. The touchscreen gadget was pressed towards Authai till it was 2 meters far from her. The trial started when she utilized her trunk to press the start button. 2 pictures of fruits (bananas, watermelons and apples) appeared on the screen and the elephant was to pick among them. If she picked the one with the bigger variety of products (either 3 or 4 things, depending upon the trial), this activated a neutral noise and image, followed by a fruit benefit for Authai. If she picked the figure with the smaller sized variety of products, the outcome was a 3 2nd beeping noise, 5 seconds of a blank screen and no reward for the elephant.

In each of the 132 training trials, the scientists differed the sizes of the fruit images, which evaluate side consisted of the image with the bigger amount of fruit and “t he portions of the overall locations (of the screen) covered by the products,” they keep in mind in the research study. (One training session included 6 training trials and 4 of these sessions were held every day. The touchscreen gadget was eliminated in between sessions.)

The group’s analysis exposed that Authai’s precision was above the possibility level for the 2 kinds of trials in the training phase (one with 3 things versus no and a 2nd with 4 things versus one, in which she was 72.2% precise and 64.1% precise, respectively). So, she was progressed into the test trials.

An elephant mathematics test

The screening trials had the very same setup as the last training phase, other than that each figure provided to Authai might consist of pictures of in between no and 10 fruit pieces. These image mixes provided in a random order, although “e ach session consisted of the contrast 1 vs 4 (case) a minimum of as soon as at the starting to raise Authai’s inspiration level,” the scientists composed.

In 181 cases (out of 271), Authai picked the right reaction. That’s a 66.8% precision rate, which is more frequently than possibility. What’s more, the Asian elephant’s efficiency “was untouched by range, magnitude, or the ratios of the provided numerosities,” Irie mentioned in the news release. While Authai required more time to compare the 2 figures when they were smaller sized ranges apart, this is “constant with observations of human counting,” Irie included.

Aside from the truth that the conclusions of this research study are based upon screening trials carried out on simply one animal (so they might not generalize to other Asian elephants), there’s likewise the matter of the 2 types of African elephants. Because the types diverged more than 76 million years back, there’s a high probability that their cognitive capabilities vary from those of Asian elephants, the press release notes.

Still, it’s amazing to image elephant mathematicians, whether wild or captive, having mathematics sense that’s closer to that of mankind than other animals.

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843137255″ >

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Image credit: Getty Royalty Free

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Some captive elephants produce paintings or even smash and take in huge pumpkins in Halloween kickoff occasions, however what about their mathematical capabilities? 3 Asian elephants called Artit (a 15 – year-old male), Surya (an 18 – year-old woman), and Authai (a 14 – year-old woman) are the stars of a current elephant mathematics research study released in the Journal of Ethology. The trio of pachyderms reside in Japan’s Ueno Zoo in centers authorized by the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums.

Authai was the breakout entertainer of the group in this research study, which” offers the very first speculative proof that nonhuman animals have cognitive qualities partly similar to human counting,” the research study’s lead author Naoko Irie kept in mind in a press release (Artit was eliminated from the research study when his precision for the last training phase of the experiment was49 73 %, which is “listed below possibility level,” while Surya was dismissed from the research study since she wasn’t working together with the experiment after 2 sessions of the last training phase.)

Here’s how the scientists penetrated Authai’s mathematics capabilities and what they discovered.

The training phase

Initially, the group trained Authai how to utilize touch panel device, according to the paper. The device included a liquid crystal screen with touch panel, which was linked to a laptop computer. All of those elements were installed supported by a dolly. (All 3 elephants were associated with this training phase.)

The training sessions were hung on an outside play ground and were timed to take place right prior to the elephants’ 3rd meal of the day. These sessions were held beyond the view of other elephants and the training order was random for each day.

Initially, Authai was rewarded for touching the pointer of her trunk to the screen. In the next action, she was rewarded if she touched a red start button within 30 seconds of it appearing on the screen.

The stakes were greater for the last training phase. With the zookeeper standing 3 meters far from Authai and dealing with in the opposite instructions, the phase was set. Here, the elephant needed to make some options without taking hints from her keeper …

When the start button appeared on the screen, this was the keeper’s hint. The touchscreen gadget was pressed towards Authai till it was 2 meters far from her. The trial started when she utilized her trunk to press the start button. 2 pictures of fruits (bananas, watermelons and apples) appeared on the screen and the elephant was to pick among them. If she picked the one with the bigger variety of products (either 3 or 4 things, depending upon the trial), this activated a neutral noise and image, followed by a fruit benefit for Authai. If she picked the figure with the smaller sized variety of products, the outcome was a 3 2nd beeping noise, 5 seconds of a blank screen and no reward for the elephant.

In each of the 132 training trials, the scientists differed the sizes of the fruit images, which evaluate side consisted of the image with the bigger amount of fruit and “t he portions of the overall locations (of the screen) covered by the products,” they keep in mind in the research study. (One training session included 6 training trials and 4 of these sessions were held every day. The touchscreen gadget was eliminated in between sessions.)

The group’s analysis exposed that Authai’s precision was above the possibility level for the 2 kinds of trials in the training phase (one with 3 things versus no and a 2nd with 4 things versus one, in which she was 72.2 % precise and 64.1 % precise, respectively). So, she was progressed into the test trials.

An elephant mathematics test

The screening trials had the very same setup as the last training phase, other than that each figure provided to Authai might consist of pictures of in between no and 10 fruit pieces. These image mixes provided in a random order, although “e ach session consisted of the contrast 1 vs 4 (case) a minimum of as soon as at the starting to raise Authai’s inspiration level,” the scientists composed.

In 181 cases (out of 271), Authai picked the right reaction. That’s a 66.8 % precision rate, which is more frequently than possibility. What’s more, the Asian elephant’s efficiency “was untouched by range, magnitude, or the ratios of the provided numerosities,” Irie mentioned in the news release. While Authai required more time to compare the 2 figures when they were smaller sized ranges apart, this is “constant with observations of human counting,” Irie included.

Aside from the truth that the conclusions of this research study are based upon screening trials carried out on simply one animal (so they might not generalize to other Asian elephants), there’s likewise the matter of the 2 types of African elephants. Because the types diverged more than 76 million years back, there’s a high probability that their cognitive capabilities vary from those of Asian elephants, the press release notes.

Still, it’s amazing to image elephant mathematicians, whether wild or captive, having mathematics sense that’s closer to that of mankind than other animals.

.