The volcano Tavurvur in Papa-Neuguinea sending ash and pumice into the twilight. Credit: Wikipedia/Taro Taylor, CC BY 2.0.T.Taylor

“And it came about during this year that a most dread portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness, like the moon, during this whole year, and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear nor such as it is accustomed to shed.” – the Byzantine historian Procopius in 536 CE.

Historical sources describing a fog covering the sun combined with reduced growth seen in tree rings suggest that erupting volcanoes caused a dramatic cooling in Europe after the year 536, coinciding with a time of general crisis and local catastrophes, such as the Plague of Justinian in 541-542.

Geologists believe that two powerful volcanic eruptions, the largest in the last 2,000 years, are to blame. If an eruption is powerful enough to send volcanic ash and gases high into Earth’s atmosphere, the resulting haze can shield the surface from the sunlight, causing a drop in temperatures worldwide. It remains uncertain to this day which volcanos erupted in 536 and 540/541. Based on traces of sulfur preserved in ice-layers recovered from the ice shield of Greenland and Antarctica, some geologists argued that the volcano was located somewhere along the equator. Possible candidates include the Tavurvur in Papa-Neuguinea, the Krakatau in Indonesia or the Ilopango in El Salvador.

However, now a team of scientists studying an ice-core recovered from a glacier covering the Signalkuppe or Punta Gnifetti, a 4,554-meter peak in the Pennine Alps on the border between Italy and Switzerland, argue that the eruption of 536 actually happened in Iceland.

The 72-meter-long core covers more than 2,000 years and the single ice-layers record things like fallout from volcanoes, Saharan dust storms and human pollution of the atmosphere. The research also describes a layer of volcanic ash preserved in the ice, dated around536 Using X-rays to determine the chemical composition of the recovered ash particles, the researchers discovered that the chemical composition matches exactly the chemical composition of volcanic rocks from Iceland.

In this scenario, the volcano erupted in Iceland and atmospheric circulation transported the ash over the Atlantic and Europe into the Alps, very similar to what happened in 2010 with the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. As for the 540/541 eruption, recorded in the ice from Greenland and the South Pole, the volcano that caused ash to spread to the two poles of Earth still remains to be identified.

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The volcano Tavurvur in Papa-Neuguinea sending out ash and pumice into the golden. Credit: Wikipedia/Taro Taylor, CC BY 2.0. T.Taylor

” And it happened throughout this year that a most fear portent happened. For the sun provided forth its light without brightness, like the moon, throughout this entire year, and it appeared extremely like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were unclear nor such as it is accustomed to shed.” – the Byzantine historian Procopius in 536 CE.

Historic sources explaining a fog covering the sun integrated with decreased development seen in tree rings recommend that appearing volcanoes triggered a significant cooling in Europe after the year 536, accompanying a time of basic crisis and regional disasters, such as the Plague of Justinian in 541-542

Geologists think that 2 effective volcanic eruptions, the biggest in the last 2,000 years, are to blame. If an eruption is effective enough to send out ashes and gases high into Earth’s environment, the resulting haze can protect the surface area from the sunshine, triggering a drop in temperature levels worldwide. It stays unpredictable to this day which volcanos appeared in 536 and 540/541 Based upon traces of sulfur protected in ice-layers recuperated from the ice guard of Greenland and Antarctica, some geologists argued that the volcano lay someplace along the equator. Possible prospects consist of the Tavurvur in Papa-Neuguinea, the Krakatau in Indonesia or the Ilopango in El Salvador.

(************** )(**************** )Nevertheless, now a group of researchers studying an ice-core recuperated from a glacier covering the Signalkuppe or Punta Gnifetti, a 4,554- meter peak in the Pennine Alps on the border in between Italy and Switzerland, argue that the eruption of 536 in fact occurred in Iceland

The 72- meter-long core covers more than 2,000 years and the single ice-layers record things like fallout from volcanoes, Saharan dust storms and human contamination of the environment. The research study likewise explains a layer of ashes protected in the ice, dated around536 Utilizing X-rays to identify the chemical structure of the recuperated ash particles, the scientists found that the chemical structure matches precisely the chemical structure of volcanic rocks from Iceland.

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In this situation, the volcano appeared in Iceland and climatic blood circulation carried the ash over the Atlantic and Europe into the Alps, extremely comparable to what occurred in 2010 with the Eyjafjallajökull volcano When it comes to the 540/541 eruption, taped in the ice from Greenland and the South Pole, the volcano that triggered ash to infect the 2 poles of Earth still stays to be recognized.

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The volcano Tavurvur in Papa-Neuguinea sending out ash and pumice into the golden. Credit: Wikipedia/Taro Taylor , CC BY 2.0. T.Taylor

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“And it happened throughout this year that a most fear portent happened. For the sun provided forth its light without brightness, like the moon, throughout this entire year, and it appeared extremely like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were unclear nor such as it is accustomed to shed.” – the Byzantine historian Procopius in 536 CE.

Historic sources explaining a fog covering the sun integrated with decreased development seen in tree rings recommend that appearing volcanoes triggered a significant cooling in Europe after the year 536, accompanying a time of basic crisis and regional disasters, such as the Plague of Justinian in 541 -542

.

Geologists think that 2 effective volcanic eruptions, the biggest in the last 2, 000 years, are to blame. If an eruption is effective enough to send out ashes and gases high into Earth’s environment, the resulting haze can protect the surface area from the sunshine, triggering a drop in temperature levels worldwide. It stays unpredictable to this day which volcanos appeared in 536 and 540/541 Based upon traces of sulfur protected in ice-layers recuperated from the ice guard of Greenland and Antarctica, some geologists argued that the volcano lay someplace along the equator. Possible prospects consist of the Tavurvur in Papa-Neuguinea, the Krakatau in Indonesia or the Ilopango in El Salvador.

Nevertheless, now a group of researchers studying an ice-core recuperated from a glacier covering the Signalkuppe or Punta Gnifetti, a 4, 554 – meter peak in the Pennine Alps on the border in between Italy and Switzerland, argue that the eruption of 536 in fact occurred in Iceland

.

The 72 – meter-long core covers more than 2, 000 years and the single ice-layers record things like fallout from volcanoes, Saharan dust storms and human contamination of the environment. The research study likewise explains a layer of ashes protected in the ice, dated around536 Utilizing X-rays to identify the chemical structure of the recuperated ash particles, the scientists found that the chemical structure matches precisely the chemical structure of volcanic rocks from Iceland.

In this situation, the volcano appeared in Iceland and climatic blood circulation carried the ash over the Atlantic and Europe into the Alps, extremely comparable to what occurred in 2010 with the Eyjafjallajökull volcano When it comes to the 540/ 541 eruption, taped in the ice from Greenland and the South Pole, the volcano that triggered ash to infect the 2 poles of Earth still stays to be recognized.

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