CNN meteorologist Brandon Miller, “Over 40% of Greenland experienced melting yesterday, with total ice loss estimated to be more than 2 gigatons (a gigaton is equal to 1 billion tons).” University of Georgia climatologist Thomas Mote, an award-winning scientist who studies Greenland using satellite observations, told Miller that melting is comparable to historic melting in 2012 and a bad sign for further melting this season. In an otherwise intelligent conversation on social media about this, a “zombie theory” (a claim long refuted but lives on) was injected about natural climate change, Vikings, and anthropogenic climate change being an “overrated theory.” After I gave my eyes a chance to finish rolling, I thought to myself, “Oh boy, here we go.” Someone that doesn’t understand that climatologists know that climate changes naturally and about the Little Ice Age. Yet, none of that disputes the fact that carbon dioxide values are increasingly significantly and that the naturally-varying climate system is responding to the new stimulus (you know, the way naturally growing-grass responds to fertilizer on the lawn). I don’t want to waste time swatting away a swarm of “zombie theory” flies. I need to deal with the use of “theory” when people try to refute climate change.

Greenland early season ice melt is worrisome.

NSIDC and Tom Mote/UGA

In defining the word “theory,” Merriam-Webster.com specifically identifies the challenges associated with the word:

there are two senses of theory which are sometimes troublesome. These are the senses which are defined as “a plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena” and “an unproven assumption; conjecture.” The second of these is occasionally misapplied in cases where the former is meant, as when a particular scientific theory is derided as “just a theory,” implying that it is no more than speculation or conjecture. One may certainly disagree with scientists regarding their theories, but it is an inaccurate interpretation of language to regard their use of the word as implying a tentative hypothesis; the scientific use of theory is quite different than the speculative use of the word.

Jaime Tanner, a professor of biology at Marlobro College, told Livescience.com that “Most people use the word ‘theory’ to mean an idea or hunch that someone has, but in science the word ‘theory’ refers to the way that we interpret facts.” For example, atmospheric physics theory that goes back to the late 1800’s and early 1900s established that small amounts contributions of carbon dioxide can warm the atmosphere. By the way, an oft-cited zombie theory is that there is too little carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to matter. I usually respond by noting that it doesn’t take very much venom from a black mamba to kill either.

Over the years, I have noticed that the small but very vocal “climate dismissive” sector (see below) of the Yale Program on Climate Communication group’s “Six Americas” study tends to fall into this trap by framing human contributions to changing climate as uncertain, unproven, or a hoax.

The 6 Americas study on how people perceive climate change.

Yale Climate Communication

I also notice that some people tend to confuse or conflate “hypothesis” and “theory.” A hypothesis is an idea that is offered or assumed with the intent of being tested. A theory is intended to explain processes already supported or substantiated by data and experimentation. An article at Livescience.com explains the process by which a hypothesis becomes a theory:

Every scientific theory starts as a hypothesis. A scientific hypothesis is a suggested solution for an unexplained occurrence that doesn’t fit into a currently accepted scientific theory….If enough evidence accumulates to support a hypothesis, it moves to the next step — known as a theory — in the scientific method and becomes accepted as a valid explanation of a phenomenon.

As a scientist, I often see people weighted down in confirmation biases or ideological tribalism misinterpret “theory” or strategically employ it to advance their position.

How is a “law” different than a “theory” then? There is often confusion over the relative “pecking order” of scientific law and scientific theory. David Pfeiffer offers a simple but effective explanation in his essay:

a scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world. A scientific law is simply an observation of the phenomenon that the theory attempts to explain. For example, suppose that you were lying under an apple tree and observed an apple fall from a branch to the ground. The observation of this phenomena can be called the law of gravity. The law of gravity states that every time you drop an apple, it will fall to the ground. The theory of gravity is the explanation as to why the apple falls to the ground. A law is an observation. A theory is an explanation.

I conclude with a nod to a paper published in the journal Science in1988 It was entitled, “The greenhouse theory of climate change: a test by an inadvertent global experiment.” If you read the paper, it outlines outcomes that are expected to happen as greenhouse gases increase within the atmosphere (by the way, they are happening). The author, Dr. V. Ramanathan, wrote in the abstract, “Hence, the greenhouse theory of climate change has reached the crucial stage of verification.”

As I close, something funny popped into my mind. A combination of process including atmospheric variability and climate warming likely explain changes happening in Greenland right now. Ironically, none of my colleagues discussing this recent event explicitly mentioned climate warming. It was only lobbed into the discussion by someone with a contrarian viewpoint. Go figure.

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According to CNN meteorologist Brandon Miller,” Over40% of Greenland experienced melting the other day, with overall ice loss approximated to be more than 2 gigatons( a gigaton amounts to 1 billion heaps ). “ University of Georgia climatologist Thomas Mote, an acclaimed researcher who studies Greenland utilizing satellite observations, informed Miller that melting is similar to historical melting in 2012 and a bad indication for additional melting this season. In an otherwise smart discussion on social networks about this, a” zombie theory “( a claim long refuted however survives on) was injected about natural environment modification, Vikings, and anthropogenic environment modification being an “overrated theory.” After I provided my eyes a possibility to complete rolling, I believed to myself, “Oh boy, here we go.” Somebody that does not comprehend that climatologists understand that environment modifications naturally and about the Little Glacial Epoch Yet, none of that challenges the reality that co2 worths are progressively considerably which the naturally-varying environment system is reacting to the brand-new stimulus (you understand, the method naturally growing-grass reacts to fertilizer on the yard). I do not wish to lose time whacking away a swarm of “zombie theory” flies. I require to handle using “theory” when individuals attempt to refute environment modification.

(*************** )Greenland early season ice melt is uneasy.

NSIDC and Tom Mote/UGA

In specifying the word “theory,” Merriam-Webster. com particularly determines the obstacles connected with the word:

there are 2 senses of theory which are in some cases bothersome. These are the senses which are specified as” a possible or clinically appropriate basic concept or body of concepts used to discuss phenomena “and” an unverified presumption; opinion.” The second of these is periodically misapplied in cases where the previous is implied, as when a specific clinical theory is derided as” simply a theory, “suggesting that it disappears than(********************* ) speculation or opinion One might definitely disagree with researchers concerning their theories, however it is an unreliable analysis of language to concern their usage of the word as suggesting a tentative hypothesis; the clinical usage of theory is rather various than the speculative usage of the word.

Jaime Tanner, a teacher of biology at Marlobro College, informed Livescience.com that “Many people utilize the word ‘theory’ to suggest a concept or inkling that somebody has, however in science the word ‘theory’ describes the manner in which we analyze realities.” For instance, climatic physics theory that returns to the late 1800’s and early 1900 s developed that little quantities contributions of co2 can warm the environment. By the method, an oft-cited zombie theory is that there is insufficient co2 in the environment to matter. I typically react by keeping in mind that it does not take quite venom from a black mamba to eliminate either.

For many years, I have actually seen that the little however extremely singing “environment dismissive” sector (see listed below) of the Yale Program on Environment Interaction group’s “6 Americas” research study tends to fall under this trap by framing human contributions to altering environment as unpredictable, unverified, or a scam.

(************ )(************* )

The 6 Americas research study on how individuals view environment modification.

(****************
) Yale Environment Interaction

(************ )

I likewise see that some individuals tend to puzzle or conflate “hypothesis “and” theory.” A hypothesis is a concept that is used or presumed with the intent of being checked. A theory is planned to discuss procedures currently supported or corroborated by information and experimentation. A short article at Livescience.com discusses the procedure by which a hypothesis ends up being a theory:

Every clinical theory begins as a hypothesis. A clinical hypothesis is a recommended service for an inexplicable incident that does not suit a presently accepted clinical theory … If adequate proof collects to support a hypothesis, it relocates to the next action– referred to as a theory– in the clinical approach and ends up being accepted as a legitimate description of a phenomenon.

(************************** )

As a researcher, I frequently see individuals weighted down in verification predispositions or ideological tribalism misinterpret” theory “or tactically use it to advance their position.

How is a “law” various than a” theory” then? There is frequently confusion over the relative

“chain of command “of clinical law and clinical theory.(************************************ )David Pfeiffer uses an easy however reliable description in his essay:

(******************** )a clinical theory is

a well-substantiated description of some element of the natural world. A clinical law is just an observation of the phenomenon that the theory tries to discuss. For instance, expect that you were lying under an apple tree and observed an apple fall from a branch to the ground. The observation of this phenomena can be called the law of gravity. The law of gravity states that each time you drop an apple, it will be up to the ground. The theory of gravity is the description regarding why the apple is up to the ground. A law is an observation. A theory is a description.(********************* )

(************************** )

I conclude with a nod to a paper released in the journal Science in1988 It was entitled, ” The greenhouse theory of environment modification: a test by an unintended international experiment.”(*** )If you check out the paper, it describes results that are anticipated to take place as greenhouse gases increase within the environment (by the method, they are taking place ). The author, Dr. V. Ramanathan, composed in the abstract, “ Thus, the greenhouse theory of environment modification has actually reached the essential phase of confirmation. “

(* )As I close, something amusing popped into my mind. A mix of procedure consisting of climatic irregularity and environment warming most likely discuss modifications taking place in Greenland today. Paradoxically, none of my associates discussing this current occasion clearly pointed out environment warming. It was just lobbed into the conversation by somebody with a contrarian perspective. Go figure.

(*************************************** )(************ )

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296451117557″ >

According to CNN meteorologist Brandon Miller, “Over 40 % of Greenland experienced melting the other day, with overall ice loss approximated to be more than 2 gigatons (a gigaton amounts to 1 billion heaps).
University of Georgia climatologist Thomas Mote, an acclaimed researcher who studies Greenland utilizing satellite observations, informed Miller that melting is similar to historical melting in 2012 and a bad indication for additional melting this season. In an otherwise smart discussion on social networks about this, a “zombie theory” (a claim long refuted however survives on) was injected about natural environment modification, Vikings, and anthropogenic environment modification being an “overrated theory.” After I provided my eyes a possibility to complete rolling, I believed to myself, “Oh boy, here we go.” Somebody that does not comprehend that climatologists understand that environment modifications naturally and about the Little Glacial Epoch Yet, none of that challenges the reality that co2 worths are progressively considerably which the naturally-varying environment system is reacting to the brand-new stimulus (you understand, the method naturally growing-grass reacts to fertilizer on the yard). I do not wish to lose time whacking away a swarm of “zombie theory” flies. I require to handle using “theory” when individuals attempt to refute environment modification.

.

.

Greenland early season ice melt is uneasy.

NSIDC and Tom Mote/UGA

.

.

In specifying the word “theory,” Merriam-Webster. com particularly determines the obstacles connected with the word:

.

there are 2 senses of theory which are in some cases bothersome. These are the senses which are specified as “a possible or clinically appropriate basic concept or body of concepts used to discuss phenomena” and “an unverified presumption; opinion.” The second of these is periodically misapplied in cases where the previous is implied, as when a specific clinical theory is derided as “simply a theory,” suggesting that it disappears than speculation or opinion One might definitely disagree with researchers concerning their theories, however it is an unreliable analysis of language to concern their usage of the word as suggesting a tentative hypothesis; the clinical usage of theory is rather various than the speculative usage of the word.

.

Jaime Tanner , a teacher of biology at Marlobro College, informed Livescience.com that “Many people utilize the word ‘theory’ to suggest a concept or inkling that somebody has, however in science the word ‘theory’ describes the manner in which we analyze realities.” For instance, climatic physics theory that returns to the late 1800’s and early 1900 s developed that percentages contributions of co2 can warm the environment. By the method, an oft-cited zombie theory is that there is insufficient co2 in the environment to matter. I typically react by keeping in mind that it does not take quite venom from a black mamba to eliminate either.

For many years, I have actually seen that the little however extremely singing “environment dismissive” sector (see listed below) of the Yale Program on Environment Interaction group’s “6 Americas” research study tends to fall under this trap by framing human contributions to altering environment as unpredictable, unverified, or a scam.

.

.

The 6 Americas research study on how individuals view environment modification.

Yale Environment Interaction

.

.

I likewise see that some individuals tend to puzzle or conflate “hypothesis” and “theory.” A hypothesis is a concept that is used or presumed with the intent of being checked. A theory is planned to discuss procedures currently supported or corroborated by information and experimentation. A short article at Livescience.com discusses the procedure by which a hypothesis ends up being a theory:

.

Every clinical theory begins as a hypothesis. A clinical hypothesis is a recommended service for an inexplicable incident that does not suit a presently accepted clinical theory … If adequate proof collects to support a hypothesis, it relocates to the next action– referred to as a theory– in the clinical approach and ends up being accepted as a legitimate description of a phenomenon.

.

As a researcher, I frequently see individuals weighted down in verification predispositions or ideological tribalism misinterpret “theory” or tactically use it to advance their position.

How is a “law” various than a “theory” then? There is frequently confusion over the relative “chain of command” of clinical law and clinical theory. David Pfeiffer uses an easy however reliable description in his essay:

.

a clinical theory is a well-substantiated description of some element of the natural world. A clinical law is just an observation of the phenomenon that the theory tries to discuss. For instance, expect that you were lying under an apple tree and observed an apple fall from a branch to the ground. The observation of this phenomena can be called the law of gravity. The law of gravity states that each time you drop an apple, it will be up to the ground. The theory of gravity is the description regarding why the apple is up to the ground. A law is an observation. A theory is a description.

.

I conclude with a nod to a paper released in the journal Science in1988 It was entitled, “The greenhouse theory of environment modification: a test by an unintended international experiment.” If you check out the paper, it describes results that are anticipated to take place as greenhouse gases increase within the environment (by the method, they are taking place). The author, Dr. V. Ramanathan, composed in the abstract,” Thus, the greenhouse theory of environment modification has actually reached the essential phase of confirmation.”

As I close, something amusing popped into my mind. A mix of procedure consisting of climatic irregularity and environment warming most likely discuss modifications taking place in Greenland today. Paradoxically, none of my associates discussing this current occasion clearly pointed out environment warming. It was just lobbed into the conversation by somebody with a contrarian perspective. Go figure.

.