Why is science not advancing much faster with the huge amount of scientific papers published each year? originally appeared on Quora: the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world.

Answer by Israel Ramirez, Biopsychologist, on Quora:

Back in the 1970’s a guy named Gordon Moore noticed that the number of transistors on electronic/computer chips was increasing dramatically over time. The rate of increase was literally exponential.[1]

In recent years, people noticed that pharmaceutical research was getting increasingly expensive and less productive. It is taking more and more money to develop new drugs. Some clever person thought it was the reverse of Moore’s law and named it Eroom’s law.[2]

There isn’t much hard data to confirm this but it looks like this is a problem for all of the biological and behavioral sciences, not just drugs. It’s becoming more and more difficult to make important advances.

There are lots of reasons for this:

  • Most of the easy problems have already been solved. The ones that remain are all hard.
  • Equipment has become more sophisticated and powerful. Although some kinds of equipment, like DNA analyzers, have become cheaper, it’s now necessary to have all that equipment in order to make progress.
  • More and more powerful, and expensive, research reagents have become available. These are chemicals, biochemicals, and/or substances extracted from living things. Many are costly to produce but researchers must use them to make progress.
  • Research standards have gone up. Animals, cell lines, biological preparations, and more have to be more rigorously checked for contamination and diseases. When I started research in the 1970’s, I could use ordinary lab rats. By the 1990s I had to use specific pathogen free rats which were certified as disease free but were a lot more expensive.
  • Statistical methods have tightened up because people became more aware of problems related to replicability. That means larger samples and fewer results are reported as statistically significant.
  • Funding agencies have become more conservative. Long ago, a scientist with an interesting, but unproven idea, could get money to test that idea. Now, researchers must have strong evidence that their ideas is right before they can get money. That means investigators crawl in very tiny steps.
  • There has been an awful lot of me too research. Because it’s difficult to do something new, there are an enormous number of studies that look at issues that have already been explored thoroughly. Every year, for example, there are new studies looking at the correlation between health and alcohol intake. Most of these new studies are similar to existing ones and produce similar results. Every few years, scientists publish summaries of these studies, called meta-analyses. A recent meta-analysis summarized the results of 592 studies on the risk of alcohol use.[3]
  • Regulations have become tighter. When I started in research, I could do any experiment I had money and equipment for. Now, investigators must get approval in advance. Some investigators complain that paperwork has gotten to be a serious obstacle to doing even simple studies.[4]
  • Investigators feel pressure to publish minor advances. They are judged, in part, by the number of scientific papers they publish in good quality journals. Competition is fierce. As a result, scientists write and submit articles on anything that shows even a slight degree of progress.
  • One other thing that isn’t mentioned much. People throw money and effort at important problems that can’t be solved at the present time. For example, there’s a lot of people trying to understand how different kinds of foods affect body weight but the tools we have now can’t settle the issue. So, people conduct research and publish the results, but nobody is making progress.[5]

There won’t be any easy solutions to any of this. The situation is guaranteed to get worse over time.

More to read

Here’s some good discussions of Eroom’s Law:

Eroom’s Law

Moore’s and Eroom’s Law in a Graph -Skyrocketing Pharma R&D Costs Despite Quantum Leaps in…

http://maodl.com/wp-content/uplo…

This article gives evidence that the same thing is happening in many areas of applied research:

https://web.stanford.edu/~chadj/…

Footnotes

[1] http://By Author: ourworldindata…

[2] Eroom’s law: $/drug exponentially increasing

[3] Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

[4] My IRB Nightmare

[5] NIH working group report: Innovative research to improve maintenance of weight loss

This question originally appeared on Quora – the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+. More questions:

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< div _ ngcontent-c15 ="" innerhtml =" Why is science not advancing much quicker with the substantial quantity of clinical documents released each year? initially appeared on Quora:(************* )(********* )the location to acquire and share understanding, empowering individuals to gain from others and much better comprehend the world

(*************** )(**************** )Response by(*****************
) Israel Ramirez, Biopsychologist, on Quora:

Back in the1970’s a man called Gordon Moore discovered that the variety of transistors on electronic/computer chips was increasing significantly with time. The rate of boost was actually rapid[1]

Recently, individuals discovered that pharmaceutical research study was getting significantly pricey and less efficient. It is taking a growing number of loan to establish brand-new drugs. Some creative individual believed it was the reverse of Moore’s law and called it Eroom’s law .[2]

(******************* )There isn’t really much tough information to validate this however it appears like this is an issue for all the biological and behavioral sciences, not simply drugs. It’s ending up being a growing number of hard to make crucial advances.

There are great deals of factors for this:

  • The majority of the simple issues have actually currently been fixed. The ones that stay are all hard.
  • Devices has actually ended up being more advanced and effective. Although some type of devices, like DNA analyzers, have actually ended up being more affordable, it’s now required to have all that devices in order to make development.
  • A growing number of effective, and pricey, research study reagents have actually appeared. These are chemicals, biochemicals, and/or compounds drawn out from living things. Lots of are expensive to produce however scientists need to utilize them to make development.
  • Research study requirements have actually increased. Animals, cell lines, biological preparations, and more need to be more carefully looked for contamination and illness. When I began research study in the 1970’s, I might utilize normal laboratory rats. By the 1990 s I needed to utilize particular pathogen totally free rats which were licensed as illness totally free however were a lot more pricey.
  • Analytical approaches have actually tightened up due to the fact that individuals ended up being more familiar with issues associated with replicability. That implies bigger samples and less outcomes are reported as statistically considerable.
  • Financing firms have actually ended up being more conservative. Far back, a researcher with a fascinating, however unverified concept, might get loan to check that concept. Now, scientists need to have strong proof that their concepts is ideal prior to they can get loan. That implies detectives crawl in really small actions.
  • There has actually been a terrible great deal of me too research study. Due to the fact that it’s hard to do something brand-new, there are a massive variety of research studies that take a look at concerns that have actually currently been checked out completely. Every year, for instance, there are brand-new research studies taking a look at the connection in between health and alcohol consumption. The majority of these brand-new research studies resemble existing ones and produce comparable outcomes. Every couple of years, researchers release summaries of these research studies, called meta-analyses. A current meta-analysis summed up the outcomes of 592 research studies on the danger of alcohol usage.[3]
  • Laws have actually ended up being tighter. When I began in research study, I might do any experiment I had loan and devices for. Now, detectives need to get approval ahead of time. Some detectives grumble that documents has actually gotten to be a severe challenge to doing even basic research studies.[4]
  • Private investigators feel pressure to release small advances. They are evaluated, in part, by the variety of clinical documents they release in great quality journals. Competitors is strong. As an outcome, researchers compose and send short articles on anything that reveals even a small degree of development.
  • Another thing that isn’t really discussed much. Individuals toss loan and effort at crucial issues that cannot be fixed at today time. For instance, there’s a great deal of individuals aiming to comprehend how various type of foods impact body weight however the tools we have now cannot settle the concern. So, individuals perform research study and release the outcomes, however no one is making development.[5]

There will not be any simple options to any of this. The scenario is ensured to obtain even worse with time.

More to check out

Here’s some great conversations of Eroom’s Law:

Eroom’s Law

Moore’s and Eroom’s Law in a Chart- Increasing Pharma R&D Expenses In Spite Of Quantum Leaps in …

http://maodl.com/wp-content/uplo …

This short article provides proof that the exact same thing is taking place in numerous locations of used research study:

https://web.stanford.edu/~chadj/ …

Footnotes

[1] http://By Author: ourworldindata …

[2] Eroom’s law: $/ drug tremendously increasing

[3] Alcohol usage and problem for 195 nations and areas, 1990–2016: a methodical analysis for the Worldwide Problem of Illness Research Study 2016

[4] My IRB Headache

[5] NIH working group report: Ingenious research study to enhance upkeep of weight reduction

This concern initially appeared on Quora – the location to acquire and share understanding, empowering individuals to gain from others and much better comprehend the world. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ More concerns:

” readability =”48
4869565217″ >

Why is science not advancing much quicker with the substantial quantity of clinical documents released each year? initially appeared on Quora : the location to acquire and share understanding, empowering individuals to gain from others and much better comprehend the world

.

Response by Israel Ramirez , Biopsychologist, on Quora :

Back in the 1970’s a man called Gordon Moore discovered that the variety of transistors on electronic/computer chips was increasing significantly with time. The rate of boost was actually rapid [1]

Recently, individuals discovered that pharmaceutical research study was getting significantly pricey and less efficient. It is taking a growing number of loan to establish brand-new drugs. Some creative individual believed it was the reverse of Moore’s law and called it Eroom’s law [2]

There isn’t really much tough information to validate this however it appears like this is an issue for all the biological and behavioral sciences, not simply drugs. It’s ending up being a growing number of hard to make crucial advances.

There are great deals of factors for this:

    .

  • The majority of the simple issues have actually currently been fixed. The ones that stay are all hard.
  • Devices has actually ended up being more advanced and effective. Although some type of devices, like DNA analyzers, have actually ended up being more affordable, it’s now required to have all that devices in order to make development.
  • A growing number of effective, and pricey, research study reagents have actually appeared. These are chemicals, biochemicals, and/or compounds drawn out from living things. Lots of are expensive to produce however scientists need to utilize them to make development.
  • Research study requirements have actually increased. Animals, cell lines, biological preparations, and more need to be more carefully looked for contamination and illness. When I began research study in the 1970’s, I might utilize normal laboratory rats. By the 1990 s I needed to utilize particular pathogen totally free rats which were licensed as illness totally free however were a lot more pricey.
  • Analytical approaches have actually tightened up due to the fact that individuals ended up being more familiar with issues associated with replicability. That implies bigger samples and less outcomes are reported as statistically considerable.
  • Financing firms have actually ended up being more conservative. Far back, a researcher with a fascinating, however unverified concept, might get loan to check that concept. Now, scientists need to have strong proof that their concepts is ideal prior to they can get loan. That implies detectives crawl in really small actions.
  • There has actually been a terrible great deal of me too research study. Due to the fact that it’s hard to do something brand-new, there are a massive variety of research studies that take a look at concerns that have actually currently been checked out completely. Every year, for instance, there are brand-new research studies taking a look at the connection in between health and alcohol consumption. The majority of these brand-new research studies resemble existing ones and produce comparable outcomes. Every couple of years, researchers release summaries of these research studies, called meta-analyses. A current meta-analysis summed up the outcomes of 592 research studies on the danger of alcohol usage. [3]
  • .

  • Laws have actually ended up being tighter. When I began in research study, I might do any experiment I had loan and devices for. Now, detectives need to get approval ahead of time. Some detectives grumble that documents has actually gotten to be a severe challenge to doing even basic research studies. [4]
  • .

  • Private investigators feel pressure to release small advances. They are evaluated, in part, by the variety of clinical documents they release in great quality journals. Competitors is strong. As an outcome, researchers compose and send short articles on anything that reveals even a small degree of development.
  • Another thing that isn’t really discussed much. Individuals toss loan and effort at crucial issues that cannot be fixed at today time. For instance, there’s a great deal of individuals aiming to comprehend how various type of foods impact body weight however the tools we have now cannot settle the concern. So, individuals perform research study and release the outcomes, however no one is making development. [5]
  • .

There will not be any simple options to any of this. The scenario is ensured to obtain even worse with time.

More to check out

Here’s some great conversations of Eroom’s Law:

Eroom’s Law

Moore’s and Eroom’s Law in a Chart – Increasing Pharma R&D Expenses In Spite Of Quantum Leaps in …

http://maodl.com/wp-content/uplo …

This short article provides proof that the exact same thing is taking place in numerous locations of used research study:

https://web.stanford.edu/~chadj/ …

Footnotes

[1] http://By Author: ourworldindata …

[2] Eroom’s law: $/ drug tremendously increasing

[3] Alcohol usage and problem for 195 nations and areas, 1990– 2016: a methodical analysis for the Worldwide Problem of Illness Research Study 2016

[4] My IRB Headache

[5] NIH working group report: Ingenious research study to enhance upkeep of weight reduction

This concern initially appeared on Quora – the location to acquire and share understanding, empowering individuals to gain from others and much better comprehend the world. You can follow Quora on Twitter , Facebook , and Google + More concerns:

.